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That's wh Resume Tips for Healthcare Professionals Healthcare has undergone significant changes in the past 20 years, and healthcare organizations are increasingly sensitive to Here, more advanced, specific questions were asked, such as questions about the prisoner's "submarine equipment, radar questions, range finders, bombsights, etc. If the interpreter did not fully master the language, both technical terms and a large general vocabulary, he would not make an effective interviewer: language was most important.
Moran quickly learned that every soldier had a story to tell, and he believed the interrogator's job was to facilitate and provide the atmosphere that allowed the prisoner to tell his story. He offered these tips:. Begin by asking him things about himself. Make him and his troubles the center of the stage, not you and your questions of war problems. If he is not wounded or tired out, you can ask him if he has been getting enough to eat. If he is wounded you have a rare chance. Begin to talk about his wounds. Ask if the doctor or corpsman has attended to him.
Have him show you his wounds or burns. Also important, Moran said, is for the interrogator to not be "too systematic in the questioning. Another successful technique that Moran used, especially toward prisoners who refused to give any information except their name, rank, and serial number, was to shame the prisoners. To do this, he played on his knowledge about Japanese culture. For example he would tell a prisoner that he had lived in Japan for many years, had many Japanese friends, and had enjoyed many good and intimate conversations with them.
You too could "have a conversation with me," Moran would tell a difficult prisoner, "but never have [I] met anyone so offish and on guard as you," even though "we have treated you well, far better than probably we would have been treated," if Americans were taken prisoner in Japan. In addition, Japanese captives often feared going back to their families because they felt humiliated and ashamed, and believed that their capture was a disappointment to their families. Moran believed that interrogator—prisoner conversations should be made interesting, in a way that captures the prisoner's imagination.
Questions should build upon each other, ending in a way that impels the prisoner to either tell his part of the "story" that the interviewer had started, end the story, or correct it because some facts were wrong.
In Moran's case, he needed information that would be useful to U. Marine Corps amphibious forces. Often, a prisoner was too tired or seriously wounded to be questioned at length. Because Moran was usually stationed on the front lines and his interrogations were often interrupted by bombing raids, he stuck to questions that dealt with imperative information, such as:. When did you arrive at Guadalcanal?
Where did you land?
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Very important. How many landed with you? What kind of a ship did you come in?
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Don't ask a leading question, such as, "Did you come on a warship? Ask the name of the ship. How many troops were on the ship? If, for instance, he says he came on a destroyer, ask how many troops usually travel on a destroyer. How many other ships were with yours? What kind of ships?
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Where did you sail from and when? Were there many ships in that harbor? When did you leave Japan? Where were you between the time you left Japan and the time you landed on Guadalcanal? When you landed were any munitions landed? Food supplies, medical supplies? After you landed where did you go? Where were you between the time you landed and the time you were captured? What experience in actual combat warfare have you had; your company, battalion, or regiment?
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How is the present food supply in your unit? What was the objective of your attack last night? In his writings, Moran observed that an interrogator who is genuinely tough has the confidence to know that he will always have the advantage, even while being nice. He concluded that "the most important characteristic of a successful interrogator is not his experience or even his linguistic knowledge; it is his own temperament and his own character.
Despite coming from opposite sides of a terrible war, an analysis of the interrogation techniques Hanns Scharff and Sherwood Moran used reveals more similarities than differences. Some of the differences between the two men's techniques were determined by the differences in the circumstances and the settings of the interrogations.
Scharff was located outside the battlefield environment, in Oberusel, the famous Luftwaffe Interrogation and Evaluation Center, while Moran worked on the front lines, under palm trees, while enduring continual bombing raids. Therefore, Scharff had much more time to carry out his interrogations, and also had the opportunity to interrogate prisoners several times. Moreover, Moran often needed to obtain "time critical" information that might reveal the next ambush, number of enemies in the area, conditions of enemy units—tactical information that could immediately help the Marines in the field.
He knew that the prisoners, because of their capture, likely did not possess information about current plans. In contrast, because he was not with troops in the field, Scharff tried to get more general strategic information. His questions pointed toward gaining some larger understanding of the enemy and its tactics as a whole. Scharff, like his American counterpart, also assumed that prisoners would not have information about imminent plans. Moran's questions, because of a lack of time and because the prisoners were often tired or wounded, had to be direct, whereas Scharff could spend more time talking all around a question, thereby concealing the nature of the information he was actually seeking.
Indeed, many prisoners later said that they never knew what information Scharff was after, but they were confident they had not given him anything valuable, even when, as it turned out, they had. Perhaps the greatest difference between Scharff's and Moran's experiences as interrogators was that Scharff, who was interrogating mostly American or British combatants, had a large intelligence apparatus to work with. This memo provides new members of Congress with an overview of the guidelines for interrogations conducted by the military or intelligence agencies. Army Field Manual 2 Beyond uniformed enemy belligerents, and given U.
Military personnel who engage in cruel or inhuman treatment of detainees during interrogation can be punished under the Uniform Code of Military Justice UCMJ. The U. Thus, after being given permission by the White House and the Department of Justice, the CIA began using alternative interrogation techniques to gather intelligence from high-value al-Qaeda detainees.
It remains controversial whether coercive interrogation methods effectively elicit timely and accurate information from detainees. During a speech, President Bush claimed that enhanced interrogation techniques on a number of al-Qaeda members protected U. Coercive techniques, however, may result in the U. The Obama Administration in April declassified another four subsequently-retracted memos from the Department of Justice that described, in detail, the legal justification for enhanced interrogation techniques.
As the th Congress debates the issue of enhanced interrogation, it will likely consider several factors, including:. Ayres, Thomas. Eggen, Dan and Walter Pincus. Jehl, Douglas. Myers, Steven. Tactics Affirms Bush's Legacy. Ross, Brian and Richard Esposito. Endorsement of Severe Interrogations. Suleman, Arsalan M. Issue 19, Spring Confrontation or Collaboration?
Interrogation Methods Are Criticized
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